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Hacking Cookies

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Cookies commonly include sensitive information associated with authentication. If the cookie contains passwords or session identifiers, stealing the cookie can be a very successful attack against a web site. There are several popular methods used to steal cookies, with the most popular being script injection and eavesdropping.

Reverse engineering the cookie offline is a very productive attack. The best path is to gather a sample of cookies using different input to see how the cookie changes. This can be done by using different accounts to authenticate at different times. The idea is to see how the cookie changes based on time, username, access privileges, and so on. Bit-flipping attacks adopt the brute-force approach, methodically modifying bits to see if the cookie is still valid and whether different access is gained.

Before embarking on attacks on cookie values, care should be taken to first understand any encoding used and whether the cookie requires to be decoded for the attack to be successful. One general mistake made by application developers is to use an encoding format, such as Base64, when encryption is required.

This mistake is sometimes noticed in applications caching role data in the cookie for performance purposes. Because Base64 is easily decoded, an attacker can decode the cookie value, change it then re-encode the cookie value to probably change his or her assigned position and obtain access to the application. Tools such as the Burp web proxy have great support for manipulating cookies and encoding, decoding, and hashing values using standard algorithms.

 

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Privacy Preference Center

Necessary

The __cfduid cookie is used to identify individual clients behind a shared IP address and apply security settings on a per-client basis.

cookie_notice_accepted and gdpr[allowed_cookies] are used to identify the choices made from the user regarding cookie consent.

For example, if a visitor is in a coffee shop where there may be several infected machines, but the specific visitor's machine is trusted (for example, because they completed a challenge within your Challenge Passage period), the cookie allows Cloudflare to identify that client and not challenge them again. It does not correspond to any user ID in your web application, and does not store any personally identifiable information.

__cfduid, cookie_notice_accepted, gdpr[allowed_cookies]

Advertising

DoubleClick by Google refers to the DoubleClick Digital Marketing platform which is a separate division within Google. This is Google’s most advanced advertising tools set, which includes five interconnected platform components.

DoubleClick Campaign Manager: the ad-serving platform, called an Ad Server, that delivers ads to your customers and measures all online advertising, even across screens and channels.

DoubleClick Bid Manager – the programmatic bidding platform for bidding on high-quality ad inventory from more than 47 ad marketplaces including Google Display Network.

DoubleClick Ad Exchange: the world’s largest ad marketplace for purchasing display, video, mobile, Search and even Facebook inventory.

DoubleClick Search: is more powerful than AdWords and used for purchasing search ads across Google, Yahoo, and Bing.

DoubleClick Creative Solutions: for designing, delivering and measuring rich media (video) ads, interactive and expandable ads.

doubleclick

Analytics

The _ga is asssociated with Google Universal Analytics - which is a significant update to Google's more commonly used analytics service. This cookie is used to distinguish unique users by assigning a randomly generated number as a client identifier. It is included in each page request in a site and used to calculate visitor, session and campaign data for the sites analytics reports. By default it is set to expire after 2 years, although this is customisable by website owners.

The _gat global object is used to create and retrieve tracker objects, from which all other methods are invoked. Therefore the methods in this list should be run only off a tracker object created using the _gat global variable. All other methods should be called using the _gaq global object for asynchronous tracking.

_gid works as a user navigates between web pages, they can use the gtag.js tagging library to record information about the page the user has seen (for example, the page's URL) in Google Analytics. The gtag.js tagging library uses HTTP Cookies to "remember" the user's previous interactions with the web pages.

_ga, _gat, _gid