Although Java was modeled after C and C++ languages, it differs from C and C++ in many ways. Java does not i a number of features available in C and C++. For the benefit of C and C++ programmers, we point out here a few major differences between C/C++ and Java language
How Java Differs From C:
Java and C
Java is not lot like C but the major difference between Java and C is that Java is and object-oriented language and has mechanism to define classes and objects. In an effort to build a simple and safe language, the Java team did not include some of the C features in Java.
- Java does not include the C unique statement keywords sizeof, and typedef.
- Java does not contain the data type struct and union.
- Java does not define the type modifiers keywords auto,extern,register,signed, and unsigned.
- Java does not support an explicit pointer type.
- Java does not have a preprocessor and therefore we cannot use # define, # include, and # ifdef statements.
- Java requires that the functions with no arguments must be declared with empty parenthesis and not with the void keyword as done in C.
- Java adds new operators such as instanceof and >>>.
- Java adds labelled break and continue statements.
- Java adds many features required for object-oriented programming.
How Java Differs From C++ :
Java and C++
Java is a true object-oriented language while C++ is basically C with object-oriented extension. That is what exactly the increment operator ++ indicates. C++ has maintained backward compatibility with C. Is is therefore possible to write an old style C program and run it successfully under C++. Java appears to be similar to C++ when we consider only the “extensions” part of C++. However, some object -oriented features of C++ make the C++ code extremely difficult to follow and maintain.
Listed below are some major C++ features that were intentionally omitted from java or significantly modified.
- Java does not support operator overloading.
- Java does not have template classes as in C++.
- Java does not support multiple inheritance of classes. This is accomplished using a new feature called “Interface”.
- Java does not support global variables. Every variable and method is declared within classes and forms part of that class.
- Java does not use pointers.
- Java has replaced the destructor function with a finalize() function.
- There are no header files in Java.
Java also adds some new features. While C++ is a superset of C, Java is neither a superset nor a subset of C or C++. Java may be considered as a first cousin of C++ and a second cousin of C
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