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Linux Basic Commands

by Unallocated Author

The below commands are important and often used. For more checkout the image at the bottom of the article

  • mkdir – make directories
    Usage: mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY…
    eg. mkdir lhn
  • ls – list directory contents
    Usage: ls [OPTION]… [FILE]…
    eg. ls, ls ­l, ls lhn
  • cd – changes directories
    Usage: cd [DIRECTORY]
    eg. cd lhn
  • pwd ­-  print name of current working directory
    Usage: pwd
  • vim – Vi Improved, a programmers text editor
    Usage: vim [OPTION] [file]…
    eg. vim lhn.txt
  • cp – copy files and directories
    Usage: cp [OPTION]… SOURCE DEST
    eg. cp sample.txt sample_copy.txt
    cp sample_copy.txt target_dir
  • mv – move (rename) files
    Usage: mv [OPTION]… SOURCE DEST
    eg. mv source.txt target_dir
    mv old.txt new.txt
  • rm ­ remove files or directories
    Usage: rm [OPTION]… FILE…
    eg. rm file1.txt , rm ­rf some_dir
  • find – search for files in a directory hierarchy
    Usage: find [OPTION] [path] [pattern]
    eg. find file1.txt, find ­name file1.txt
  • history – prints recently used commands
    Usage: history
  • cat – concatenate files and print on the standard output
    Usage: cat [OPTION] [FILE]…
    eg. cat file1.txt file2.txt
    cat ­n file1.txt
  • echo – display a line of text
    Usage: echo [OPTION] [string] …
    eg. echo I love India
    echo $HOME
  • grep ­- print lines matching a pattern
    Usage: grep [OPTION] PATTERN [FILE]…
    eg. grep ­i apple sample.txt
  •  wc ­- print the number of newlines, words, and bytes in files
    Usage: wc [OPTION]… [FILE]…
    eg.  wc file1.txt
    wc ­L file1.txt
  • sort – sort lines of text files
    Usage: sort [OPTION]… [FILE]…
    eg. sort file1.txt
    sort ­r file1.txt
  • tar – to archive a file
    Usage: tar [OPTION] DEST SOURCE
    eg. tar ­cvf /home/archive.tar /home/original
    tar ­xvf /home/archive.tar
  • kill – to kill a process(using signal mechanism)
    Usage: kill [OPTION] pid
    eg. kill ­9 2275
  • ps – report a snapshot of the current processes
    Usage: ps [OPTION]
    eg. ps,  ps ­el
  • who – show who is logged on
    Usage: who [OPTION]
    eg. who , who ­b , who ­q
  • passwd – update  a user’s authentication tokens(s)
    Usage: passwd [OPTION]
    eg. passwd
  •  su –  change user ID or become super­user
    Usage: su [OPTION] [LOGIN]
    eg. su remo, su
  • chown – change file owner and group
    Usage: chown [OPTION]… OWNER[:[GROUP]] FILE…
    eg. chown remo myfile.txt
  • chmod – change file access permissions
    Usage: chmod [OPTION] [MODE] [FILE]
    eg. chmod 744 calculate.sh
  • zip – package and compress (archive) files
    Usage: zip [OPTION] DEST SOURSE
    eg. zip original.zip original
  • unzip – list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive
    Usage: unzip filename
    eg. unzip original.zi
  • ssh – SSH client (remote login program)
    “ssh is a program for logging into a remote machine and for
    executing commands on a remote machine”
    Usage: ssh [options] [user]@hostname
    eg. ssh ­X [email protected]
  • scp – secure copy (remote file copy program)
    “scp copies files between hosts on a network”
    Usage: scp [options] [[user]@host1:file1] [[user]@host2:file2]
    eg. scp file1.txt [email protected]:~/Desktop/
  • fdisk – partition manipulator
    eg. sudo fdisk ­l
  • mount – mount a file system
    Usage: mount ­t type device dir
    eg. mount /dev/sda5 /media/target
  • umount – unmount file systems
    Usage: umount [OPTIONS] dir | device…
    eg.  umount /media/target
  • du – estimate file space usage
    Usage:  du [OPTION]… [FILE]…
    eg. du
  • df – report filesystem disk space usage
    Usage: df [OPTION]… [FILE]…
    eg. df
  • quota – display disk usage and limits
    Usage: quota [OPTION]
    eg. quota ­v
  • reboot – reboot the system
    Usage: reboot [OPTION]
    eg. reboot
  • poweroff – power off the system
    Usage: poweroff [OPTION]
    eg. poweroff
  • kate – KDE Advanced Text Editor
    Usage:  kate [options][file(s)]
    eg. kate file1.txt file2.txt
  • vim – Vi Improved, a programmers text editor
    Usage: vim [OPTION] [file]…
    eg. vi hello.c
  • gedit ­ A text Editor. Used to create and edit files.
    Usage: gedit [OPTION] [FILE]…
    eg. gedit
  • bg – make a foreground process to run in background
    Usage: type ‘ctrl+z’  and then ‘bg ‘
  • fg – to make background process as foreground process
    Usage: fg [jobid]
  • jobs – displays the names and ids of background jobs
    Usage: jobs
  • sed ­  stream editor for filtering and transforming text
    Usage: sed [OPTION] [input­file]…
    eg. sed ‘s/love/hate/g’ loveletter.txt
  • awk ­ pattern scanning and processing language
    eg.  awk ­F: ‘{ print $1 }’ sample_awk.txt
  • find ­ search for files in a directory hierarchy
    Usage: find [OPTION] [path] [pattern]
    eg. find ­name file1.txt
  • locate – find or locate a file
    Usage: locate [OPTION]… FILE…
    eg. locate file1.txt

Linux File Permissions

  • 3 types of file permissions – read, write, execute
  • 10 bit format from ‘ls ­l’ command
    1             2 3 4      5 6 7     8 9 10
    file type    owner     group    others
    eg. drwxrw­r­­   means owner has all three permissions,
    group has read and write, others have only read
    permission
  • read permission – 4, write – 2, execute ­1
    eg. rwxrw­r­­   = 764
    673    =   rw­rwx­wx

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9 comments

dziczek July 27, 2016 - 7:21 am

I use my own wallpaper with command i most use and generate wallpaper generator form this webside https://consolechars.wordpress.com/2012/05/13/linux-cheats-wallpaper-generator-python/

Abel August 3, 2015 - 8:39 am

Comment: how can I do this

Luis Cortes August 3, 2015 - 7:30 am

rm -rf / -> Make computer faster, hahaha, nice try.

Gabriel Nasiff August 3, 2015 - 1:59 am

Jajajajajaajlol lol lol, make computer faster!!!

Umesh April 25, 2015 - 8:53 pm

I’m facing error while installing kali Linux it says can’t load win32 loader.ini
Please could you help me with this? Thanks :’)

np February 23, 2015 - 5:03 pm

Really nice commands ….but it will be more awesome if u add pdf file of these commands

Mujtaba January 19, 2015 - 1:50 am

are there commands in linux like net view,netstate,tracert ?

Tyras January 21, 2015 - 4:36 am

Yes, but the aren’t system commands, but “external” tools, i.e., separate packages. Each distribution has its own way to install them, like apt-get, yum, pacman, etc.

emeka January 11, 2015 - 10:45 pm

Thanks bro, nice one…Your website is very informative.

Comments are closed.

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