ls is a two letter command both Unix users and sysadmins cannot live without. Whether you use it 1 time a day or 1000 times a day, knowing the power of the ls command can make your command line journey more enjoyable.
ls is basically a command used to have a look at the list of files and folders in the present directory. But, you can do a lot more than a list of files with this command. Let’s explore a few of them.
Display One File Per Line Using ls -1
The -1 is used at the end to show single entry per line.
$ ls -1 bin boot cdrom dev etc home
Display Compete Information About Directories/Files Using ls -l
To show complete information about files, use -l at the end.
$ ls -l -rw-r----- 1 sid hi-dev 9275204 apr 03 15:27 pythontest.txt.gz
Display The File Size in Readable Format Using ls -lh
The ls –lh (where h stands for human readable format) is used to see the size of folders in MB, KB etc.
-rw-r----- 1 sid hi-dev 9275204 14.7KB apr 03 15:27 pythontest.txt.gz
Order The Files Based on Last Modified Time Using ls -lt
You can sort the list of files in the order of modification in time.
total 76 drwxr-xr-x 121 root root 4096 Jun 22 07:36 etc drwxrwxrwt 14 root root 4096 Jun 22 07:05 tmp drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 4096 Jun 20 22 07:04 root drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 13780 Jun 23:12 dev
Order The Files Based on Last Modified Time (In Reverse Order)
In the place of lt, type ltr.
total 76 drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 13780 Jun 23:12 dev drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 4096 Jun 20 22 07:04 root drwxrwxrwt 14 root root 4096 Jun 22 07:05 tmp drwxr-xr-x 121 root root 4096 Jun 22 07:36 etc
Display Files Recursively Using ls -R
$ ls -R /etc/sysconfig/networking /etc/sysconfig/networking/profiles: default /etc/sysconfig/networking: devices profiles
Hide The Control Characters Using ls -q
If you want to print question mark instead of the non-graphics control characters use the -q option.
Display Directory Information Using ls -ld
If you use “ls -l” you’ll get the details of all the directories content. But, if you want details of the directory then you can use the -d option as.
ls -ld /etc
drwxr-xr-x 21 root root 4096 Jun 15 07:02 /etc
Open The Last Edited File Using ls -t
$ vi second-long-file.txt $ vi first-long-file.txt
vi `ls -t | head -1`
This opens the “first long file”, as it is the last edited one.
Display File UID and GID Using ls -n
Lists the output like -l, but shows the uid and gid in numeric format instead of names.
$ ls -l ~/.bash_profile -rw-r--r-- 1 ramesh ramesh 909 Feb 8 11:48 /home/ramesh/.bash_profile $ ls -n ~/.bash_profile -rw-r--r-- 1
909 Feb 8 11:48 /home/ramesh/.bash_profile
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